• Anglický jazyk

1257

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Source: Wikipedia. Pages: 32. Chapters: 1257 births, 1257 by country, 1257 deaths, 1257 establishments, 1257 in Europe, 1257 works, Conflicts in 1257, Collège de Sorbonne, Shajar al-Durr, Przemysl I of Greater Poland, Aybak, Main Market Square, Kraków, Frederick... Viac o knihe

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Source: Wikipedia. Pages: 32. Chapters: 1257 births, 1257 by country, 1257 deaths, 1257 establishments, 1257 in Europe, 1257 works, Conflicts in 1257, Collège de Sorbonne, Shajar al-Durr, Przemysl I of Greater Poland, Aybak, Main Market Square, Kraków, Frederick I, Margrave of Meissen, Mary of Hungary, Queen of Naples, Constance of Wroclaw, Przemysl II, Battle of Cadfan, Lanfranc Cigala, Yolanda of Lusignan, Haakon the Young, Maurice FitzGerald, 2nd Lord of Offaly, Nicholas Farnham, Saint Hyacinth, List of state leaders in 1257, Cecco d'Ascoli, Edmund de Lacy, Baron of Pontefract, Roger Weseham, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of L'Aquila, Owen de la Pole, Agnes of Habsburg, John I, Count of Hainaut, Richard Blund, Battle of Creadran Cille, William of Cassingham, Nicholas Trivet, Choe Hang, Poppo von Osterna, Yuan Haowen, Maria of Antioch-Armenia, John Byset, Simon of Elmham, Goffraidh Ó Dónaill, 1257 in Ireland, Stephen Bauzan, Walter Suffield, Ulaghchi, Valdemar III, Duke of Schleswig, Bostan, Beatrice of Burgundy, Lady of Bourbon, Robert de Vere, 6th Earl of Oxford, William III of Baux, Simone Mestaguerra, 1257 in poetry. Excerpt: Shajar al-Durr (Arabic: ¿¿¿ ¿¿¿¿, "Tree of Pearls") (Royal name: al-Malikah Ismat ad-Din Umm-Khalil Shajar al-Durr (Arabic: ¿¿¿¿¿¿ ¿¿¿¿ ¿¿¿¿¿ ¿¿ ¿¿¿¿ ¿¿¿ ¿¿¿¿) (Nicknamed: ¿¿ ¿¿¿¿, Umm Khalil; mother of Khalil) (d. 1257, Cairo) was the widow of the Ayyubid Sultan as-Salih Ayyub who played a crucial role after his death during the Seventh Crusade against Egypt (1249-1250). She was regarded by Muslim historians and chroniclers of the Mamluk time as being of Turkic origin. She became the Sultana of Egypt on May 2, 1250, marking the end of the Ayyubid reign and the starting of the Mamluk era. Shajar al-Durr was purchased as a bondmaid by as-Salih Ayyub. in the Levant before he became a Sultan and accompanied him with his Mamluk Baibars (not Baibars who became a Sultan) at Al Karak during his detention in 1239. Later when he became a Sultan in 1240 she went with him to Egypt and delivered their son Khalil who was called al-Malik al-Mansour. She was of Turkic origin, although Al-Maqrizi and Abu Al-Fida also believed that she may be of Armenian origin , and was described by the historians as a beautiful, pious and intelligent woman. On April 1249, al-Salih Ayyub, the Ayyubid Sultan and husband of Shajar al-Durr who was gravely sick in Syria, returned to Egypt and stayed in Ashmum-Tanah, near Damietta after he heard that King Louis IX of France has assembled a crusade army in Cyprus and was about to launch an attack against Egypt. On June 1249, the crusaders landed in the abandoned town of Damietta, at the mouth of the Nile river. as-Salih Ayyub was carried on a stretcher to his palace in the better protected town of Al Mansurah where he died on November 22, 1249 after he ruled Egypt about 10 years and amid one of the most earnest situations in the history of Egypt. Shajar al-Durr informed Emir Fakhr ad-Din Yussuf Ben Shaykh (commander of all the Egyptian army) and Tawashi Jamal ad-Din Muhsin (the chief eunuch who controlled the palace) of the Sultan's death but as the coun

  • Vydavateľstvo: Books LLC, Reference Series
  • Rok vydania: 2011
  • Formát: Paperback
  • Rozmer: 246 x 189 mm
  • Jazyk: Anglický jazyk
  • ISBN: 9781157578239

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